The median household income in 2018 was $51,140 and 20.6% of Houstonians lived at or below the poverty line. At the time of construction, it was believed to be the world's tallest skyscraper outside a central business district. Greater Houston's arterial road network is established at the municipal level, with the City of Houston exercising planning control over both its incorporated area and extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ).  Houston's aviation history is showcased in the 1940 Air Terminal Museum, located in the old terminal building on the west side of the airport. The population was 15,833 at the 2000 census. Spanish architecture (or a reasonable facsimile thereof) is everywhere, and most yards have miniature botanical gardens -- rooted specimens of cacti, succulents and tropical plants each in their own number 10 can. , Despite the region's high rate of automobile usage, attitudes towards transportation among Houstonians indicate a growing preference for walkability. In 1948, the city annexed several unincorporated areas, more than doubling its size.  In 2017, Bcycle logged over 142,000 check outs while expanding to 56 docking stations.  In 2010, mining (which consists almost entirely of exploration and production of oil and gas in Houston) accounted for 26.3% of Houston's GAP up sharply in response to high energy prices and a decreased worldwide surplus of oil production capacity, followed by engineering services, health services, and manufacturing. Slightly west of the University of Houston is Texas Southern University (TSU), one of the largest and most comprehensive historically black universities in the United States with approximately 10,000 students. , President Woodrow Wilson opened the deep-water Port of Houston in 1914, seven years after digging began. The hurricane of 1915 destroyed many of the local industries. , Rice University, located near the Museum District and Texas Medical Center, is a private tier-one research university and the most selective institution of higher education in Texas. It is the second-largest concentration of theater seats in a Downtown area in the United States.  The majority of rainfall occurs between April and October (the wet season of Southeast Texas), when the moisture from the Gulf of Mexico evaporates extensively over the city. , In 2006 H-E-B opened the "Mi Tienda" ("My Store") Hispanic-themed store in South Houston.  The median monthly owner costs with a mortgage were $1,598, and $524 without a mortgage. About 62 percent of Hispanics (of any race) in the area are declared or favor Democrats. Immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Ethiopia, India, and other areas have added to Houston's Eastern and Oriental Orthodox population. Explore Houston's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. Houston ( /hjuːstən/) is the fourth-largest city in the United States of America, and the largest city in the state of Texas. Thousands of enslaved black people lived near the city before the American Civil War.  Houston is a home rule city and all municipal elections in Texas are nonpartisan. Westpark Tollway and Fort Bend Parkway are operated conjunctly with the Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority. Houston attracts many touring Broadway acts, concerts, shows, and exhibitions for a variety of interests. LGBT Houstonians needed to have a place to socialize after the closing of the gay bars. The Houston Dash team plays in the National Women's Soccer League. ".  The 2019 census estimates determined a population of 2,320,268 and the American Community Survey 2,316,797, citing a slight decline due to suburbanization.  In 2009, Houston became the first U.S. city with a population over 1 million citizens to elect a gay mayor, by electing Annise Parker. , South Houston is located at 29Â°39â²40â³N 95Â°13â²47â³W / 29.66111Â°N 95.22972Â°W / 29.66111; -95.22972 (29.660980, -95.229787).. African Americans formed a large part of the city's population, numbering 23,929 people, which was nearly one-third of Houston's residents.  It is bordered by the cities of Houston and Pasadena, and geographically located southeast of Houston. C.S.  Under the city charter, once the population in the city limits exceeded 2.1 million residents, two additional districts were to be added.  Due to the industrial infrastructure in and around Houston, natural disasters such as Hurricane Harvey have also led to numerous toxic spills and disasters, including the 2017 Arkema plant explosion. The company, which is based in Houston, hasn't filed to drill a new well in Karnes since 2018. Houston, inland port city, in Harris, Fort Bend, and Montgomery counties, that is the seat (1836) of Harris county, southeastern Texas, U.S.It is linked by the Houston Ship Channel to the Gulf of Mexico and the Intracoastal Waterway at Galveston, 50 miles (80 km) southeast., 50 miles (80 km) southeast.  South Houston is within District 6 of the Texas Senate; as of 2008 Mario Gallegos is the representative. Petrochemical refineries and manufacturing plants were constructed along the ship channel because of the demand for petroleum and synthetic rubber products by the defense industry during the war. Sam Houston Park contains restored and reconstructed homes which were originally built between 1823 and 1905. The adjoining prairie land drains into the city, which is prone to flooding. Evacuations are being issued in Texas as Hurricane Laura approaches, including mandatory evacuations in Galveston and some voluntary evacuations in Houston…  However, the land remained largely uninhabited until settlement in the 1830s.  Houston is one of the country's largest hubs for human trafficking. South Parkis a broad post-World War IIdevelopment in the south-central area of Houston, Texas, a few miles south of MacGregor Park and directly south of the 610 Loop. The Lee and Joe Jamail Skatepark is a public skatepark owned and operated by the city of Houston, and is one of the largest skateparks in Texas consisting of a 30,000-ft2 (2,800 m2)in-ground facility.  The city once relied on groundwater for its needs, but land subsidence forced the city to turn to ground-level water sources such as Lake Houston, Lake Conroe, and Lake Livingston. Get Houston's weather and area codes, time zone and DST.  In 2010, the city's murder rate (per capita rate of 11.8 murders per 100,000 population) was ranked sixth among U.S. cities with a population of over 750,000 (behind New York City, Chicago, Detroit, Dallas, and Philadelphia) according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.  Ninety-one foreign governments have established consular offices in Houston's metropolitan area, the third-highest in the nation.  The following year, the discovery of oil at the Spindletop oil field near Beaumont prompted the development of the Texas petroleum industry. Though some have blamed the city's low density, urban sprawl, and lack of pedestrian-friendliness on these policies, others have credited the city's land use patterns with providing significant affordable housing, sparing Houston the worst effects of the 2008 real estate crisis. South Texas College of Law Houston is the oldest law school in the city of Houston.  Most of Houston is located on the gulf coastal plain, and its vegetation is classified as Western Gulf coastal grasslands while further north, it transitions into a subtropical jungle, the Big Thicket. Ultimately, the system is designed to ferry traffic from neighborhood streets to major thoroughfares, which connect into the limited-access highway system. Houston's total crime rate including violent and nonviolent crimes decreased by 11 percent. Space Center Houston is the official visitors' center of NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. , The Lewis Food Town grocery store chain is based in South Houston. Woods of the Western Land Company founded the settlement of Dumont in 1907. , In 1945, the M.D.  The Major Thoroughfare and Freeway Plan, updated annually, establishes the city's street hierarchy, identifies roadways in need of widening, and proposes new roadways in unserved areas.  Under Texas law Harris County, like other more rural Texas counties, cannot direct developers where to build or not build via land use controls such as a zoning ordinance, and instead can only impose general floodplain regulations for enforcement during subdivision approvals and building permit approvals. Based on highest architectural feature, it is the 21st-tallest in the United States. Therefore, Houston exercises transportation planning authority over a 2,000-square-mile (5,200 km2) area over five counties, many times larger than its corporate area. , In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Here's a region with a flavor of its own.  South Houston's initial industrial activity consisted of shipping produce along the Galveston, Houston and Henderson Railroad. Houston is the birthplace of the chopped and screwed remixing-technique in Hip-hop which was pioneered by DJ Screw from the city. Though primarily in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties, bordering other principal communities of Greater Houston such as Sugar Land and The Woodlands.  Roadway classification affects anticipated traffic volumes, roadway design, and right of way breadth. The population was 16,983 at the 2010 census. The only other major publication to serve the city is the Houston Pressâwhich was a free alternative weekly newspaper before the destruction caused by Hurricane Harvey resulted in the publication switching to an online-only format on November 2, 2017. Buffalo Bayou runs through Downtown and the Houston Ship Channel, and has three tributaries: White Oak Bayou, which runs through the Houston Heights community northwest of Downtown and then towards Downtown; Brays Bayou, which runs along the Texas Medical Center; and Sims Bayou, which runs through the south of Houston and Downtown Houston. , Houston has a higher proportion of minorities than non-Hispanic whites.  The city is home to the nation's third-largest concentration of consular offices, representing 92 countries. The Texas Medical Center is home to a high density of health professions schools, including two medical schools: McGovern Medical School, part of The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, and Baylor College of Medicine, a highly selective private institution.  A 1999 Murdoch University study found that Houston had both the lengthiest commute and lowest urban density of 13 large American cities surveyed, and a 2017 Arcadis study ranked Houston 22nd out of 23 American cities in transportation sustainability. According to historian David McComb, "[T]he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T.F.L. , The South Houston Fire Department serves the city. Three community college districts have campuses in and around Houston. This trend toward lower rates of violent crime in Houston includes the murder rate, though it had seen a four-year uptick that lasted through 2015.  La Voz de Houston is the Houston Chronicle's Spanish-language newspaper and the largest in the area. , In 2006, the Houston metropolitan area ranked first in Texas and third in the U.S. within the category of "Best Places for Business and Careers" by Forbes magazine. , In 2013, Houston was identified as the number one U.S. city for job creation by the U.S. Bureau of Statistics after it was not only the first major city to regain all the jobs lost in the preceding economic downturn, but also after the crash, more than two jobs were added for every one lost. The Houston Independent School District (HISD) is the seventh-largest school district in the United States and the largest in Texas.  A plurality of survey respondents also indicated that traffic congestion was the most significant problem facing the metropolitan area.  Only 27 countries other than the United States have a gross domestic product exceeding Houston's regional gross area product (GAP). Houston is considered to be a politically divided city whose balance of power often sways between Republicans and Democrats. The city of Houston has a strong mayoral form of municipal government. The Houston City Council passed this regulation in 2018 with a vote of 9â7. The arrival of the 20th century had a convergence of economic factors that fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas's primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, and the Texas oil boom.  In 2018 the city scored a 70 out of 100 for LGBT friendliness.  Houston is the beginning or end point of numerous oil, gas, and products pipelines.  Completed segments D through G provide a continuous 70.4-mile (113.3 km) limited-access tollway connection between Sugar Land, Katy, Cypress, Spring, and Porter.. The South Houston City Council establishes city policies, considering resolutions and ordinances, appointing South Houston residents to positions on municipal committees and boards, and establishing the annual budgets.  The median age was 33.1, up from 32.9 in 2017 and down from 33.5 in 2014; the city's youthfulness was attributed to an influx of an African American New Great Migration, Hispanic or Latin American, and Asian immigrants into Texas. For most public hunting areas in South Texas, dove access closed at the end of the first stint. Parts of South Houston are zoned to Carter Lomax Middle School (Pasadena, Grades 5-6). , The Allen brothersâAugustus Chapman and John Kirbyâexplored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay. , During the summer, with temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 Â°F (32 Â°C) on an average of 106.5 days per year, including a majority of days from June to September; additionally, an average of 4.6 days per year reach or exceed 100 Â°F (37.8 Â°C). There, visitors can see the largest collection of space artifacts in the southwestern United States—more than 400 in total—including flown spacecraft and the largest collection of moon rocks on public display. Three loop freeways provide northâsouth and eastâwest connectivity between Greater Houston's radial highways. , The Mayor's Office of Trade and International Affairs (MOTIA) is the city's liaison to Houston's sister cities and to the national governing organization, Sister Cities International.  Houston is also home to folk artists, art groups and various small progressive arts organizations.. The ship channel continues past Galveston and then into the Gulf of Mexico. Other nicknames often used by locals include "Bayou City", "Clutch City", "Crush City", "Magnolia City", "H-Town", and "Culinary Capital of the South".  Much of its success as a petrochemical complex is due to its busy ship channel, the Port of Houston.  A 2012 Kinder Institute report found that, based on the evenness of population distribution between the four major racial groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian), Greater Houston was the most ethnically diverse metropolitan area in the United States, ahead of New York City. These degree-holders tend to stay in Houston. South Texas has a variety of attractions and activities to fill out a full vacation itinerary.  Notable arterial roads in the region include Westheimer Road, Memorial Drive, Texas State Highway 6, Farm to Market Road 1960, Bellaire Boulevard, and Telephone Road. Restaurants, bakeries, traditional-clothing boutiques, and specialty shops can be found in both areas. As of 2008 the mayor is Joe Soto.  The most prominent Eastern and Oriental Orthodox jurisdictions are the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The eastern portion of South Texas is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico. , In 2017, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, non-Hispanic whites made up 24.9% of the population of Houston proper, Hispanics or Latinos 44.5%, Blacks or African Americans 29.9%, and Asian Americans 6.7%. The Bank of America Center by Philip Johnson is an example of postmodern architecture. Chris Brown is the city controller, serving his first term as of January 2016[update].  The Houston Community College and Lone Star College systems are among the 10 largest institutions of higher learning in the United States. A post office appeared in 1910. Such an increase, often regarded as "CO2 urban dome," is driven by a combination of strong emissions and stagnant atmospheric conditions. , The University of HoustonâDowntown, located in Downtown, is the second-largest institution of higher education in Houston. The Niels Esperson Building stood as the tallest building in Houston from 1927 to 1929. It is bordered by the cities of Houston and Pasadena, and geographically located southeast of Houston. This helps ensure that our students have the kinds of opportunities they need to begin pursuing a successful legal career immediately after graduation. In 2000 there were over 41 mosques and storefront religious centers, with the largest being the Al-Noor Mosque (Mosque of Light) of the Islamic Society of Greater Houston. 2 of 8 Bo Hopkins, 14, left, and his brother, Sorrel, 13, gather by a campfire at Horse Head Crossing in Pecos County, West Texas, Oct. 30, 2020. In January, the normal mean temperature at George Bush Intercontinental Airport is 53 Â°F (12 Â°C), with an average of 13 days per year with a low at or below 32 Â°F (0 Â°C), occurring on average between December 3 and February 20, allowing for a growing season of 286 days. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed the quotas, allowing for the growth of other religions. , Houston has four major bayous passing through the city that accept water from the extensive drainage system. In the 2000s, the Baylor College of Medicine was annually considered within the top ten medical schools in the nation; likewise, the MD Anderson Cancer Center had been consistently ranked as one of the top two U.S. hospitals specializing in cancer care by U.S. News & World Report since 1990.  Houston's diversity, historically fueled by large waves of Hispanic or Latino and Asian immigrants, has been attributed to its relatively low cost of living, strong job market, and role as a hub for refugee resettlement. The Gerald D. Hines Waterwall Parkâlocated in the Uptown District of the cityâserves as a popular tourist attraction and for weddings and various celebrations.  According to the 2013 American Community Survey, the average work commute in Houston (city) takes 26.3 minutes. The porous layers were compressed over time and forced upward.  A park and ride system provides commuter bus service from 34 transit centers scattered throughout the region's suburban areas; these express buses operate independently of the local bus network and utilize the region's extensive system of HOV lanes. Due to the boom in defense jobs, thousands of new workers migrated to the city, both blacks and whites competing for the higher-paying jobs. Arterial roads are organized into four categories, in decreasing order of intensity: major thoroughfares, transit corridor streets, collector streets, and local streets. Houston's climate is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa in the KÃ¶ppen climate classification system), typical of the Southern United States. , In February 2015, a 17-year-old gay student at Lutheran High School North reported that the school forced him to leave since he refused to take down YouTube videos discussing his sexuality. [dubious – discuss], In a recent case testing these regulations, near the Brickhouse Gulley, an old golf course that long served as a floodplain and reservoir for flood waters, announced a change of heart toward intensifying development. Texas Southern University is the first state university in Houston, founded in 1927.. Bayou Bend is a 14-acre (5.7 ha) facility of the Museum of Fine Arts that houses one of America's most prominent collections of decorative art, paintings, and furniture.  The United States Postal Service operates the South Houston Post Office at 315 North Allen Genoa Road. As many as 40% of residents refused to leave Galveston Island because they feared the type of traffic problems that had happened after Hurricane Rita. [discuss], Houston's murder rate ranked 46th of U.S. cities with a population over 250,000 in 2005 (per capita rate of 16.3 murders per 100,000 population). In 2019, OSHA found that Texas was the leading state in the nation for crane accidents. , Sections of South Houston west of Old Galveston Road are served by Rick Schneider Middle School (Houston, Grades 5-6). For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.6 males. The stations broadcast from the Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting, located on the campus of the University of Houston. The central region of Texas lies in between the state's three largest metropolitan areas - Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, and San Antonio - and along its three largest interior … , Texas has banned sanctuary cities, but Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner said that Houston will not assist ICE agents with immigration raids. No significant historically recorded earthquakes have occurred in Houston, but researchers do not discount the possibility of such quakes having occurred in the deeper past, nor occurring in the future. The Sam Houston Tollway, which encompasses the mainlanes of Beltway 8 (as opposed to the frontage roads, which are untolled), is the longest tollway in the system, covering the entirety of the Beltway with the exception of a free section between Interstate 45 and Interstate 69 near George Bush Intercontinental Airport.  The Menninger Clinic, a psychiatric treatment center, is affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine and the Houston Methodist Hospital System. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males.  The four-runway, 1,304-acre (528-hectare) facility is located approximately 7 miles (11 km) southeast of Downtown Houston. South Houston is a city in Harris County, Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. , The HoustonâThe WoodlandsâSugar Land metro area's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016 was $478 billion, making it the sixth-largest of any metropolitan area in the United States and larger than Iran's, Colombia's, or the United Arab Emirates' GDP. SpaceX aborted its launch of a Starship prototype in South Texas just one second before liftoff. The Rice University Kinder Institute for Urban Research, a think tank, has described Greater Houston as "one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse metropolitan areas in the country". St. Thomas provides a liberal arts curriculum for roughly 3,000 students at its historic 19-block campus along Montrose Boulevard. By 1890, Houston was the railroad center of Texas. A system of toll roads, operated by the Harris County Toll Road Authority (HCTRA) and Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority (FBCTRA), provides additional options for regional commuters. Much of the city's wealthier areas vote Republican while the city's working class and minority areas vote Democratic. , South Houston is located within Harris County Commissioner Precinct 2; as of 2020 Adrian Garcia heads Precinct 2.  The city is currently in the process of expanding its on and off street bikeway network.[when?  The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. METRO's service area covers 1,303 square miles (3,370 km2) containing a population of 3.6 million. HOUSTON'S RIDERS: 'We do ride': Houstonians show up to vote on horseback In fact, according to Larry Callies, the owner of the Black Cowboy Museum in Rosenberg, Texas…  Other notable publications include Houston Forward Times, OutSmart, and La Voz de Houston. In: Allen, Carol M. (editor). The thick, rich, sometimes black, surface soil is suitable for rice farming in suburban outskirts where the city continues to grow..  After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initiated efforts to widen the city's extensive system of bayous so the city could accept more commerce between Downtown and the nearby port of Galveston.  The rainfall exceeded 50 inches in several areas locally, breaking the national record for rainfall.  A nation-wide developer, Meritage Homes, bought the land and planned to develop the 500-year floodplain into 900 new residential homes. They have won two NBA Championships, one in 1994 and another in 1995 under star players Hakeem Olajuwon, Otis Thorpe, Clyde Drexler, Vernon Maxwell, and Kenny Smith.  Houston is the southeast anchor of the greater megaregion known as the Texas Triangle.. Find the perfect hotel within your budget with reviews from real travelers. , Houston is home to one of the largest LGBT communities and pride parades in the United States. , Sections of South Houston west of Old Galveston Road are served by South Houston Intermediate School (South Houston, Grades 7-8). Bayou Place is a large multilevel building containing full-service restaurants, bars, live music, billiards, and Sundance Cinema. Sizable numbers, however, came through the domestic slave trade. Allen, Carol M. "What Came Before" (Chapter 1).  This is in addition to the 12,500 new graduates the U.H. Additionally, both Texas Southern University and the University of Houston have pharmacy schools, and the University of Houston hosts a college of optometry.  In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County (now Harris County). Prairie View A&M University's nursing school is located in the Texas Medical Center. Houston voters lengthen term limits for city officials ", FBI Uniform 2010 (prov.)  During the mid-2010s, Greater Houston experienced consecutive major flood events in 2015 ("Memorial Day"), 2016 ("Tax Day"), and 2017 (Hurricane Harvey). Within our walls, you’ll find a robust law library, state-of-the art courtrooms, an entire floor dedicated to clinical studies, and dozens of inviting spaces for studying and socializing.  The city owns surface water rights for 1.20 billion US gallons (4.5 Gl) of water a day in addition to 150 million US gallons (570 Ml) a day of groundwater. Houston is also one of eight cities to have an XFL team, the Houston Roughnecks. , Elephants belonging to former South Houston mayor George Christy, a circus owner, assisted the construction of the Spencer Highway. , Before the 1970s, the city's gay bars were spread around Downtown Houston and what is now midtown Houston.  Harris County is one of the largest consumers of gasoline in the United States, ranking second (behind Los Angeles County) in 2013.  In 2010, the city was rated the best city for shopping, according to Forbes. In 2015, Southwest Airlines launched service from a new international terminal at Hobby to several destinations in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.  HISD has 112 campuses that serve as magnet or vanguard schoolsâspecializing in such disciplines as health professions, visual and performing arts, and the sciences. The controller's duties are to certify available funds prior to committing such funds and processing disbursements. A succession of skyscrapers was built throughout the 1970sâmany by real estate developer Gerald D. Hinesâculminating with Houston's tallest skyscraper, the 75-floor, 1,002-foot (305 m)-tall JPMorgan Chase Tower (formerly the Texas Commerce Tower), completed in 1982.  Additionally, more than one in five foreign-born residents are from Asia. , Houston is a flat, marshy area where an extensive drainage system has been built. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston. Located near the Museum District are The Menil Collection, Rothko Chapel, the Moody Center for the Arts and the Byzantine Fresco Chapel Museum. Individuals from some other race made up 15.69% of the city's population. 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