The strip 0000001387 00000 n 9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Border or Check Basin Irrigation Systems By Riyo Posted on April 3, 2019. 0000006022 00000 n Set alert. %PDF-1.3 %���� *)�LT i�L��“ؾ���@�v�� �^�g,����8����wX�2�aY�������F@q 6g``���t͐e�-����l��};�#��j�0 �PD endstream endobj 201 0 obj 246 endobj 173 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 465.35999 679.43958 ] /Parent 167 0 R /CAPT_Info << /R [ 0 5662 0 3878 ] /S [ 0 2831 0 1939 ] /Rz [ 300 300 300 300 0 0 ] /SK (00000130)>> /Contents [ 177 0 R 179 0 R 181 0 R 187 0 R 191 0 R 193 0 R 195 0 R 197 0 R ] /Resources << /XObject << /Im16 199 0 R >> /Font << /F2 175 0 R /F10 189 0 R /F7 186 0 R /F15 184 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] >> /CropBox [ 0 0 465.35999 679.43958 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 174 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1009 1000 ] /Flags 34 /CapHeight 712 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /StemV 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 498 /Leading 42 /AvgWidth 401 /MaxWidth 1175 >> endobj 175 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 174 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 611 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] >> endobj 176 0 obj 841 endobj 177 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 176 0 R >> stream The general difference is that basin irrigation involves applying water to a nearly level field and may include ponding for extended time periods. The area between the ridges is flooded during irrigation. 0000011369 00000 n %PDF-1.3 ;��:�Cb*I��Wk� �ض~|�����~p��g�ɳ��ɳ~�ݵ?y��g?�����~��o?���_~����o_�����������ߏ��߾��Z}�;'?��������������{�yv~����?���k���_�u������� �4Gd�)��$ ��)@&8"Ӏ�#0����T���2�0�r�(��P�I�ȀG���G��� �#kj� ő5���9���$G��� �#k` ɑ5 0��Ț@r�&��"�Y� H��� H��i�$G�4#p��� �#kZ` ��5-0��Ț@pdM 8r�5l���i�Gִ� ��� `���0H������;3�}}w�#����t9���]�g��~a'�NH�o�on�.�eĨ�_,��� ��R���*UJ�����|�\i�$|��Jh��|#� ���KN{�Me�7��˷v�z��=� .��N+R#���C0S#�0j�v-U��������ao���/�^�1]���}k����N�dU�H[�_�om�*�G�CD��Du�����`!��� ��NH�)t�����Dj�7*D�y�qT&����N�*���B��U^��;�イ�$ Ƒ�⯐m]z� N�)pE���3D���3D���3D���3D6e[g�p���3D���3D���3D����C���3D&�"K��"K��"K��"K��"���3�K��"K���!���"K��"K��"Sl��l���l���l���l��M��L��l���l���l���l���l����R�u��R�u��R�u��R�u~�R�u��W`)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd�-��m�!��m���m�!��m�!�1�:C\�)��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��Yζ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�ٔm�!0�Xʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yζ�ٔi�#2��b�L�Ef�"�l�9�� �r@ʶ��f�̰Ef�"sl�y��Wd)�:Gd�-2�[�l9 e[�̲E��"�l���R�u��[d�-2��f��-(����sD��"\��l�� ��$[d�-2��a�̲EƖ4[H��"K��9"l�I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"c��-�l��I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\��l���� ǖR�u��4[d�-2��c�̳E�"K��9"l�I���r�g�)�:Gd�-2��g�,pE���sD&�"�l�)��4[dl9 ��)�:G`�+��Xʶ��� YӍ��� o Basin Irrigation System Design o Border Irrigation System Design 2.1. The field slope between dikes BORDER RIVERS (NSW) CATCHMENT IRRIGATION PROFILE 1 1. Borders can be up to 800 m or more in length and 3-30 m wide depending on a variety of factors. Center Pivot Irrigation. H�|UM��8�����'��3;Zi����V{ �I�ҭ��[�D��ZI�zU��Ճ" H��UK��0�����c�c����T��^V=���RHyt���c��q�"E����1�6q�E��� &�1��m81�qI�(�U1M���&�_�qǎ�p���T���}����9/1�� `������"�H��`.�P|Zz��eQ�m����+~E�W��������\#��ɜ����1�<7m^���{�R%e��,US��-_��lꇰ 9_hpn_jT�������cJms�c� .��rh����P$z�j��9a� =qȁG�4�HE-�&�/�N%�� �1��%��DS�E�Q��N@-@:��L�%�����������Tf�d̪Tq�sX�� �*�+gͣ�7���Gn4K)��]_�/W��8\��F�W� 0000003353 00000 n Border irrigation is a type of surface irrigation where the field is divided into strips separated by border ridges running down the gradient of the field. models of border irrigation recession. }X���Sn� a�%��ؒ�P��X4���(cCl���_@Y&���,�3>���,�z���ӝ��Ao����tf���2*���mϦ��m��Ճ�J)�]ݟJ1����U��\�WZl�'gc�o������H`�������u�o���ơ2�j\n/�׫GD=��n���Բ0d��x���e*i 0000014735 00000 n Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. This study aims to simulate border irrigation systems using the SIRMOD (surface irrigation simulation, evaluation and design, developed by Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA) software package under open- and closed-end conditions. The field is divided into smaller unit areas or beds measuring 10 to 100 sq metre or even more. `�Ț`�Ț`�Ț`�Ț`��MαE0pdM0pdM0pdM0p� ��b�+��8 �� 2���- �ș�2�r�Gf�+�0 2�� �șA2�� �șa� ��W`� �%2` ϑ50��Ț�sdM1L5@@�L�-2��f�̰Ef�"sl�y��Wdb`��-� �8zABh��[d�-2��g�,pE&��[d�-2� �r�`9G��-2��g�,pEG��"l�I��[d�-2���r 6W7f�,pE���"l�I��[d�-2��e��-h� ǃ ǽ7�3E&�"�l�)��4[d�-2��c�̳EƖ,[�†��P��"Sl�i��[d�-2��g�,pE��"c��-�a��܂�#�L���,[d�-2�Y���3E&�"�l��� ϖ�c�OՉ�0Od�-2�Y��l�`�L�E��"�l�����ƃ�,�y��O`r�� agronomy Article Comparison of Water- and Nitrogen-Use E ciency over Drip Irrigation with Border Irrigation Based on a Model Approach Yahui Wang 1, Sien Li 1,*, Hao Liang 2, Kelin Hu 3, Shujing Qin 1 and Hui Guo 1 1 Center for Agricultural Water Research in China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; yahuilan@163.com (Y.W. Figure 4–6 Border irrigation in progress 4–8 Figure 4–7 Illustration of contour border irrigation 4–8 Figure 4–8 Tailwater outlet for a blocked-end border system 4–9 Figure 4–9 Field smoothing can be done by a land plane 4–12 Figure 4–10 Typical tailwater recovery and reuse system 4–13 H��y�O��-3r�q�}��F�c����l$�>�)�u� MO�'Bz�����0�&9��4�Z����҇��Y��-�� hq0�=8�0�l n������8w���2{����������a��b�V13!>��s w �ڊRL���-�~����EW�ԡVI�(]�Y�_�4�{V�.�n&�Y?���li����P��o5��=���HI� �Lf>�N�V��y�����k�viy�F��*�CPD�C6!J)N �߇n��b��j��o�? If t d < r req the irrigation is not complete and the cutoff time must be increased so the intake at the inlet is equal to the required depth. x��]K�\�q)Ҳ��^�^u9���;/�w�����4�@���� �e~EV�d�_�u6��$� �$]����t��{�)� B<�|�ѧ'�>Tb��ߟ{�|캿x�����j�Vbp{#�rP�^���{�X���ɯNƢ��0]��~w���Z�����O�bY�u"�gb�}0ڭ��{c����'�[��9���? Irrigation induced soil erosion is a problem on specific soils in certain areas. 10. About this page ... Basin and border irrigation systems are similar in that both involve a uniform sheet of water flowing over the soil. 0000009880 00000 n The evaluation of existing border systems using a surface irrigation model showed that the irrigation conditions, comprising of inflow rate, border dimensions, and cut-off time, were diverse in tubewell and canal irrigated areas. 0000003375 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000013967 00000 n The latter is used mainly to irrigate row crops and orchards. The borders are raised beds constructed in the direction of the field's slope. ��. Border Irrigation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. trailer << /Size 202 /Info 166 0 R /Root 172 0 R /Prev 463274 /ID[<4df00a85980b859ae2a27c6d1e194263><4df00a85980b859ae2a27c6d1e194263>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 172 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 165 0 R /Outlines 152 0 R >> endobj 200 0 obj << /S 181 /O 276 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 201 0 R >> stream The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. This temporary dam may be earthen, a sheet metal dam inserted into the bottom and sides of the channel, or a plastic sheet dam. Using experimental data these models are evaluated and compared with each other in regard to their ability to predict recession flow. The border irrigation concept is to flush a large volume of water over a relatively flat field surface in a short period of time. border irrigation method. The Border Method of Irrigation. 0000013122 00000 n The equations of border irrigation are solved by the method of characteristics using a prescribed time increment. border irrigation basics Furrow Irrigation Basin or Level Border Irrigation Wild Flood Irrigation Graded Border Irrigation Corrugation Irrigation The irrigated areas between dikes may be 3–30 m wide and up to 400 m long. Most recently, furrow irrigation has become important because of the high cost of energy in pressurized irrigation … 1. 5 Maximum, minimum, and proposed initial q0 Table 2 Maximum allowable inflow rates for irrigation borders (National Engineering Handbook 1974) qmin must be used. Introduction to Surface Irrigation System The term 'surface irrigation' refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow. Jx\_�5LHk'�~���r(��\�[�TPE���F��U��?o�������} ��;B���uT�*5XV�0�뛏 ��l.��\�����j��������A�� IKzLV�^-�%vO�GS{#� ����&b3��?����EZ7�I������eX�ӀƵ�\���b�Ƹ1u�"�r���>*��q�:�����+�L�چC�Ы�X�p�1�������6|�� D�. over the entire border, a minimum allowable inflow rate 39 Fig. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Border Rivers (NSW) Catchment Irrigation Profile was developed from a study to obtain regional and industry-based assessments of water use efficiency (WUE)1 and irrigation efficiency (IE)2. The object of border strip irrigation is to advance a sheet of water down a narrow strip between low ridges or borders and to get the water into the soil as the sheet advances. ); qinshujing2010@126.com (S.Q. �5�ȡ��o[�������w��C�*Թ� �D!�@�2��%�9�N?�OU�����}��_ٷ�KB����:^��cб��O�ѱC�3%�@���Q�ѱ��+4�[���� +cXS�C�9��]Y ���� c8�F�9�l��i1��(V��)��|���B��>�{�słz����I'C�4w���Tۥ���|���d���bY26|0 ֌�kb�IjИa'`���p�A}Q�S��8�X���Q`"rv��`���V���D�b�ļБ��f�.���Jϋȯ �t�f0#T��6��A��G�ek�۽S��4S���HR�9�H�g�9�S�&���ơv4p`��q�]� 0000005192 00000 n 8e - Graded Border Irrigation Application Efficiency Analysis - Example (PDF; 28 KB) 8f - Field Irrigation Evaluation Example Guide - Form (PDF; 106 KB) 8g - Measurement of Soluble Salts (PDF; 21 KB) The arrangement is as shown in Fig. in the world are contour irrigation, border irrigation, and furrow irrigation (Walker and Skogerboe, 1987). Border irrigation is generally best suited to the larger mechanized farms as it is designed to produce long uninterrupted field lengths for ease of machine operations. ��X�g[ }��zt*L�5��r�^�ȈZA��ܵ�S�9T`c�R2z�����=U���". The water’s level may be raised at the head of the border by placing a small dam across the distribution channel just downstream from the border. 0000004296 00000 n 0000012231 00000 n The width of strip varies from 10 to 15 metres and length varies from 90 m to 400 m. Strips are separated by low embankments or levees. 2.2.2 Border irrigation. 0000013989 00000 n These strips are separated by low levees (or borders). Surface Irrigation Methods Their main classification of surface methods is as follows: (1)Free flooding (2)Border flooding (3) Check flooding (4) Basin flooding (5) Furrow irrigation method (6) Drip irrigation method. Border strip irrigation (or simply ‘border irrigation’) is a controlled surface flooding method of applying irrigation water. 171 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 173 /H [ 1047 362 ] /L 466824 /E 70015 /N 9 /T 463285 >> endobj xref 171 31 0000000016 00000 n stream 0000002128 00000 n %�쏢 0000001047 00000 n H��UKn�0=����D�?�� ��wA�E�*���:�}G Consequently, in border A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and 0000001409 00000 n 8.2 Border irrigation As in level-basin irrigation, design issues in border irrigation generally have to do with finding the optimum combination of design variables, notably, the length, flow rate, and cutoff time. Water is released at the field's high end and the borders guide the water down the slope as a shallow sheet that spreads out uniformly. Section 21 of 22 (21b - Choosing an Irrigation System) This Chapter Includes: Methods of applying water Effect of land slope Requirements, Considerations, Advantages/Disadvantages . }��z2+��z��b@�QN4w B� osf83�C�{.����^/�KNUa(�@��_w�2�֒Ñ�5�"��]Q_�?�ر�hU��GS6�2���.�9�S�|��}�g�J�Ÿ���$7!�������|�TY�|�x�.L��~�ٹa>F�0*�ЌH�(��+���"�-�!�� �RB�_)Rc��U�r�C��8�L�ھoˬbɱ����@Ap��^� �M�y��bh��9��}i%�����j�4H���q�&� ��r��z>Nh������+bL^/���h�pb��I��e�ҳ�"B�d���{^�qxu�B�-U�{_�w�9��é�3/���t�B_ � ��B_���rx��5 a�F�8D�ᚥ8�� �*Aj��}s(�Y�k�+j��$�W��Sb��U[ZU����0�=�V�{�E"Mp�������K�z��R ~�V�v���Nݸ_��m'K���Vѹ��x�*��&`$��d=`A�΢ glbM̨�l� u��h���4�B Border Strip Method: In this method a field is divided into number of strips. Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. The use of surface irrigation on moderately. 0000004318 00000 n 0000011110 00000 n 0000005214 00000 n 0000006286 00000 n Another major variable, however, that does not appear in basin irrigation, is the slope of the field. Lr���\���,W`L-ʶ�ؔi�!��m�#2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r@ʶ��d��@vb�g��adB\|pٿ>����^��/3�+�6\��Kjc�?���F@��1������oN���/�)���y*�1�nͿWqj�$�����!��Tu��H U������{�߱��mx0e�=�J�q�°�f��t#���J���?�ߔ;u��gW�+ Water is scattered throughout the land by a machine of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in 360 degrees pattern or a circle that would move around the land and sprinkle water all over the soil and it is really efficient and effective and this procedure or system is well recommended in a lot of countries but mostly used in the USA. 0000009858 00000 n In this method, the farm is divided into a number of strips which can be 3-20 metres wide and 100-400 metres long. 6.2. The computation proceeds as follows (33.18) Example 33.1: Design a border irrigation system for the following conditions: Field length, L = 200 m. Field width, W = 100 m, 6Modes of Application-1 7. Part 652 Irrigation Guide. �� �j����d�]�V���6����dm?l}8�}I�XJVVF�E��c_�,7�k���0���U/p�TD�]mk�������v�Z�| �`ّ�D���LxPB��y.���n����R�ŵg�^wn!��J���4b�����B4�|sr�LD��x&s��/P*���u�t'e�Jp����A��2� ����Y岙u��؁�7���fk�^��۳ �����sw �@�HYW0��d�&�­�y��%�%���8�ΰȿ°��͔���W7[F�X���4�� u�p��B�X���Z�/��M�Ɲz��,�D��iΫz��ɢ��ݖ�~��*^xIj:`�����7�w�Gs��%��H��-�'� > stream Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. Soil erosion can take the form of ... in the outer part of center pivot systems, excessive furrow or border inflows, and uncontrolled tailwater or runoff. 0000013100 00000 n To optimize the design of border and check basin irrigation in the slopping land, field dimensions, slope and soil informa- tion were collected from 3 blocks of langha watershed of H��Uˎ�0������4�~c/��E��n�N▄�L���L��*R��s_�{@��o�=mo�VhC �J�A�qͱF��&kw>A)`���E��X� t[C��������� �1f B��Bf�७�7F!.�#�����",F����5�0MT��-��z�೭Ұ���\m$L��E�����rI�mC��| �Y�� � !��( endstream endobj 180 0 obj 728 endobj 181 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 180 0 R >> stream It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.. In the Punjab, border irrigation is used to irrigate wheat crops grown over 90% of the cultivated area. Lr���\���,W`L-��Z~ g�5�_a�p6�)2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r � ��A��`��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\�����wdC����A;B�A+z���-����7�X��/P&l��^ �`�W�ʄ� Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. Download as PDF. ���/������F�0�A����� �� �Ϡ���$�)�p���.^(=ޯ?�!y��c.t��>1N��=fJg��� ?h����齒��:��)Ǎ�^EC�c#�܎e� ���K�Sj�酻�n!i���W����s��b}�&$W6�������]��V)��x5ŗ?v6��������1��N)���@?N�����NiH�,�^�i�s}��/Λ7ߨϡ ^����q\�tN��bo9!��+��(�BC*i�Q�!�v� Bunds or ridges are constructed around the areas forming basin within which irrigation water may be controlled. 0000012209 00000 n 0000014759 00000 n 5 ing a slight change in the borders, so that the latitude as regards rotation is rather wide. H�b```e``�)�@���� �96�}���b�i�Pυ����mC��;���-���P��=��C�ו��'�+�5.�1Y!_��I�0�����5nț(xU^�ve`pq �ʠ���� ��1 0000007521 00000 n Principles of surface irrigation border check furrow (and bed) contour In your workbook, complete activity 1 on the important principles of <> 0000007779 00000 n Surface Irrigation Methods. Border irrigation can be viewed as an extension of basin irrigation to sloping, long rectangular or contoured field shapes, with free draining conditions at the lower end. Pedosphere 20(4): 419–426, 2010 ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P c 2010 Soil Science Society of China Published by Elsevier Limited and Science Press Effect of Sprinkler and Border Irrigation on Topsoil Structure in Winter Wheat Field∗1 SUN Ze-Qiang1, 2∗, KANG Yao-Hu and JIANG Shu-Fang2 1Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100 (China) FLOOD IRRIGATION includes several methods: Border strip, basin, contour or bench border irrigation, flooding from contour ditches, wild flooding, and border ditch. Border irrigation systems are better suited for sloping fields than basin systems because water flows between dikes rather than ponded within basins. Readily accessible irrigation data were collected from State 0000001876 00000 n As the Activity 1. 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